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 A Writer's Guide to English

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God's Grace
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PostSubject: A Writer's Guide to English   Thu Jan 19, 2012 10:01 pm

Please let me now if there are any typos. (:
*All credit goes to my teacher for giving me this sheet on 4 pieces of bright ORANGE paper. Thanks Mrs.! I will never forget you being my first English teacher in Texas! Stay a pixie! (:
**Examples for the terms who don't have any will be added as time goes on. If you're really confused about one of these, just let me know by VM & I will try to help Smile
UPDATED 1/22/12


Literary Devices

Alliteration
Repeated consonant sounds occuring at the beginning of word or within words. Alliteration is used to create melody, establish mood, call attention to important words, and point out similarities and contrasts.
Example:We were wide-eyed and wondering while we wait for others to waken.

Narrative Hook
A literary device a writer uses at the beginning of a story to capture the reader's attention.

Symbolism
Something representing something else.

Flashback
Interruption in action to tell earlier events.

Foreshadowing
The use of hints or clues to suggest what action is to come.

Imagery
Language that appeals to the senses by suggesting how someone or something looks, sounds, feels, smells, or tastes.
Example: I could smell the chocolate muffin just inches away from my watery mouth.

Allusion
A reference to a person, place, event, or literary work that a writer expects a reader to recognize.
Example: celebrities, authors, writers, national parks, big cities, theme parks, state fairs.

Epiphany
A quick flash or recognition in which something is usually simple and common seen in a new light.

Genre

Genre
The type of category of literature, such as fiction or nonfiction.
Example: fiction, non-fiction, fantasy, historical fiction.

Fiction
Prose writing that tells an imaginary story.

Non-fiction
Writing that tell about real people, places, and events.

Satire
A kind of writing that holds up to ridicule the weaknesses and wrongdoings of individuals, groups, institutions, or humanity in general. (Hopefully nobody writes about anything like a satire Razz)

Comedy
In general, a story which ends happily.

Anecdote
A very short story that is told to make a point.

Tragedy
Deals with serious and important events in which the main character comes to an unhappy end.

Drama
A form of literature meant to be performed by actors in front of an audience.

Meaning

Connotation
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests.

Denotation
Direct, specific, (literal) meaning of a word.

Analogy
A comparison made between two things to show similarities between them.

Inference
A reasonable conclusion drawn from information given.

Motivation
The reason for a character's behavior.

Diction
The author's word choice: word types, vocabulary, and vividness of language used.

Irony

Dramatic Irony
The audience or reader know something the characters do not.

Situational Irony
Contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.

Verbal Irony
Sarcasm or a play on the double meaning of specific words.

Conflict

Conflict
A Struggle between opposing characters or opposing forces; in the plot; it is the essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds.

Internal Conflict
Occurs within the character (inside the heart or mind.)
Example: man versus himself.

External Conflict
Occurs outside the character (between the character and something else).
Example 1: man versus man.
Example 2: man versus nature (wild animals or nature or disease.)
Example 3: man versus society.

Point of View

Point of View
The vantage point of perspective from which the writer has chosen to tell a story.

First Person
A character is telling the story using pronouns "I" or "We."
Example: "I took it upon myself to get to know her."

Third Person Omniscient
All-knowing observer who describes and comments on all character's thoughts and feelings as well as actions.
Example: "Sally knew she would have to gather all her strength. She felt a surge os fearful excitement as she plunged into the icy water to rescue the drowning pilot."

Third Person Limited
The "all-knowing" aspect is limited to the minds of a few characters or of a single character. Writer uses the personal pronouns "he, she, they," etc.

Characterization

Dynamic Character
A character who goes through changes in the course of the story.

Flat/Static Character
A Character who doesn't change in a story.

Round Character
A Character who is very interesting and three-dimensional.

Protagonist
The main character in the story.

Antagonist
The character or force that opposes the antagonist.

Foil
A Character who provides a contrast to the protagonist.

Motivation
The reason for a character's behavior.

Literary Terms

Theme
A message about life or human nature that is conveyed by a literary work.

Tone
The writer's attitude toward his or her subject.

Mood
Atmosphere or feeling conveyed to the reader.

Setting
Includes when and where the story takes place as well as the customs and manners of the society.
Example: the setting or novel might include the religious or political beliefs of the character.

Style
The manner or writing...not just what is said, but how something is said.

Plot

Plot
The sequence of related events that make up a storyline, including the exposition (conflict), rising action (complications), climax (turning point), falling action, and resolution (denouement.)

Exposition
The introductory material which gives the settings, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story.

Rising Action
Events in a story that move the plot forward and lead to the climax.

Climax
The point of highest interest, turing point in the action and story.

Falling Action
Events following the climax that tie up loos ends and lead to the resolution.

Resolution
Everything is back to normal (or the new normal) and the story is closed.

Figurative Language

Intro~
Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else you are using figurative language. Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or subject. The most common figures of speech are simile, metaphor and personification.

Simile
A figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike things, usually with the words "like" or "as."
Example: The muscles on his brawny arms are strong as iron bands.

Metaphor
A figure of speech which involves an implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of "be." The comparison is not announces by "like" or "as."
Example: The road was a ribbon of moonlight.

Personification
A figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it.
Example: A brave handsome brute fell with a creaking rending cry.
--the author is giving the tree human qualities.

Onomatopoeia
The use of words that mimic sounds. They appeal to our sense of hearing and they help bring a description to life. A string of syllables the author has made up to represent the way a sound really sounds.
Example: "Caaaraccckleee!"

Hyperbole
An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point.
Example: She said "like" a ba-zillion times.

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Last edited by God's Grace on Sun Jan 22, 2012 11:57 am; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Fri Jan 20, 2012 1:30 am

Oooh, thanks for the dictionary thingy ^^ (boo bright orange paper Wink) I'll be sure to look back to this if I forget some terms xD.

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Fri Jan 20, 2012 2:14 am

very very nice guide :] This will help for all the authors we have on the site!

~Aeneas~

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Fri Jan 20, 2012 7:37 am

Nice guide, this should help beginners and avid writers (:

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Fri Jan 20, 2012 6:52 pm

Very impressive guide Smile

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Fri Jan 20, 2012 6:55 pm

Very nice guide =D
i love it
~♠

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Fri Jan 20, 2012 7:33 pm

XD This is ALL the stuff we talked about in class to date!
This is really gonna help a lot of people become good writers.

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Sat Jan 21, 2012 1:25 pm

Thanks for all the nice comments guys (:
and still, please let me know if there are any typos. Very Happy

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Sat Jan 21, 2012 2:11 pm

Extremely impressive guide! I know that this will help beginners with their fan-fics and other stories.

~Finally-Can-Get-To-Town Desty! C:

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Sat Jan 21, 2012 11:00 pm

Had a whole exam on all kinds of that stuff. Hope this helps everyone! Thanks!

-Blake

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Sun Jan 22, 2012 12:05 am

Amazing guide. Great job, Grace!

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Wed Jan 25, 2012 9:08 pm

Great guide GG! I am glad I sticked this so other people may see the amount of effort you put into this guide! This should also help those authors out there improve their stories!

-Kaito
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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Mon Jan 30, 2012 11:14 pm

Thank you so much for this GG! Love It. Your Teacher must of been a really good one.

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Mon Jan 30, 2012 11:18 pm

Great guide!
I like it.
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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Thu Feb 02, 2012 11:32 pm

Kaito wrote:
Great guide GG! I am glad I sticked this so other people may see the amount of effort you put into this guide! This should also help those authors out there improve their stories!

-Kaito
Call me Gigi Smile Oh you stickied it? Thanks ^^ I'm glad people will be getting help from my guide C: (Well, hopefully.)

Moony wrote:
Thank you so much for this GG! Love It. Your Teacher must of been a really good one.
She is Smile Thanks ^^

SpellBlade wrote:
Great guide!
I like it.
Thanks Very Happy

Sorry for late responses guys.

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Sat Feb 04, 2012 9:16 pm

God's Grace wrote:
Kaito wrote:
Great guide GG! I am glad I sticked this so other people may see the amount of effort you put into this guide! This should also help those authors out there improve their stories!

-Kaito
Call me Gigi Smile Oh you stickied it? Thanks ^^ I'm glad people will be getting help from my guide C: (Well, hopefully.)

Moony wrote:
Thank you so much for this GG! Love It. Your Teacher must of been a really good one.
She is Smile Thanks ^^

SpellBlade wrote:
Great guide!
I like it.
Thanks Very Happy

Sorry for late responses guys.

Hopefully? xD I think it definitely will o:

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Sun Feb 05, 2012 10:18 am

Moony wrote:
God's Grace wrote:
Kaito wrote:
Great guide GG! I am glad I sticked this so other people may see the amount of effort you put into this guide! This should also help those authors out there improve their stories!

-Kaito
Call me Gigi Smile Oh you stickied it? Thanks ^^ I'm glad people will be getting help from my guide C: (Well, hopefully.)

Moony wrote:
Thank you so much for this GG! Love It. Your Teacher must of been a really good one.
She is Smile Thanks ^^

SpellBlade wrote:
Great guide!
I like it.
Thanks Very Happy

Sorry for late responses guys.

Hopefully? xD I think it definitely will o:
Haha, again thanks,

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| Need help with English? Like a Star @ heaven Gleek Like a Star @ heaven Directioner Like a Star @ heaven Rusher Like a Star @ heaven Lovatic Like a Star @ heaven |
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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Tue Feb 07, 2012 9:49 am

I'll be adding new terms & examples. Let me know if you'd like any to be covered.
These are the ones I'm adding:
Adverb
Adjective
Verb
Noun

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PostSubject: Re: A Writer's Guide to English   Tue Feb 07, 2012 9:34 pm

Excellent guide! I will certainly be using this in my writing at home. Thanks a lot for this guide! Very Happy

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